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Imagen de apoyo de  ‘Under the colombian flag’: nation-building on San Andrés and Providence islands, 1886-1930

‘Under the colombian flag’: nation-building on San Andrés and Providence islands, 1886-1930

Por: Sharika DeShawn Crawford | Fecha: 01/01/2009

Under the Colombian Flag examines the Colombian state‘s efforts to incorporate the Afro-Caribbean English-speaking Protestant islanders of San Andrés and Providence into the Spanish-speaking Catholic nation. The project analyzes how those cultural struggles and political negotiations shaped the Colombian nation-building process. I illustrate how Colombian political elites largely spoke of islanders‘ ethnic differences in terms of cultural attributes such as language, religion, and customs. In their minds, these characteristics were malleable. The Colombian nation-builders‘ project thus ignored North American and European pseudo-scientific understandings of race in order to incorporate ethnically and racially diverse populations into their homogenizing agenda, which promoted the Spanish language, Hispanic culture, Roman Catholicism, gendered notions of morality, and racial views of health and modernity. San Andrés and Providence islanders had a different understanding of racial and national identities. They tended to formulate their Colombian identity in terms of loyalty, reciprocity, and rights. My work contributes to the growing body of historical scholarship on race and nation-building in Latin America and the Caribbean as well as scholarship investigating the experiences of black communities in the Atlantic world.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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‘Under the colombian flag’: nation-building on San Andrés and Providence islands, 1886-1930

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Imagen de apoyo de  Trajectory Planning for Non-Holonomic Mobile Robots with Timed Elastic Bands

Trajectory Planning for Non-Holonomic Mobile Robots with Timed Elastic Bands

Por: Álvaro Andrés Navarro Pérez | Fecha: 01/01/2015

Trajectory planning has recently gained importance in the mobile robot community as a motion planning strategy to solve the problem of guiding the robot from a initial location to a target location in an environment with static or dynamic obstacles. This thesis is concerned with the timed elastic band approach and model predictive control to find the optimal trajectories subject to a differential constraints of a non-holonomic platform. The objective of this thesis is to augment the timed elastic band approach to general kinematics such as the mobile robots with differential drive, the car-like systems and the truck and trailer systems in specific environments. Several cost functions are evaluated to task of obstacle avoidance. For each kinematic, the metrics of traveling time starting from a fixed initial position to a goal location as well as the traversed distance between those states are evaluated. This thesis concludes with a comparative analysis of timed elastic bands with the robot motion planning approach RRT (Rapidly-exploration random tree).
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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Trajectory Planning for Non-Holonomic Mobile Robots with Timed Elastic Bands

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Imagen de apoyo de  Transformation of livelihoods in conflict-affected areas. The case of Pitacapacho in Montes de Maria, Colombia = Transformación de modos de vida en areas afectadas por el conflicto. El caso de Pitacapacho, en los Montes de María, Colombia

Transformation of livelihoods in conflict-affected areas. The case of Pitacapacho in Montes de Maria, Colombia = Transformación de modos de vida en areas afectadas por el conflicto. El caso de Pitacapacho, en los Montes de María, Colombia

Por: Paulina Duque Gómez | Fecha: 01/01/2017

In the last decade, growing recognition has been given to the reparation of the harmful experiences of victims of armed conflicts as a way to transform war torn societies into sustainable peace. In the Colombian case, reparation measures have been introduced within the peace agreements from the mid-2000s onwards. Such initiatives have been oriented towards the reparation of rights, socio-economic improvements and cultural practices of people that have suffered the immediate effects of conflict; namely peasants and inhabitants of rural areas. However, many victimized groups still await reparation and continue to experience the absence of the state in regions, which are formally identified as successful post-conflict scenarios due to the absence of war. Therefore, daily life experiences of those are still being influenced and negatively affected by long-term effects of conflict. Despite the fact that the internal displacement phenomenon has long been addressed by academia, the trajectories and outcomes of unsupported returning processes on victims remain underdeveloped. Thus, this research aims to contribute to these matters by exploring the ways in which the effects of conflict have shaped victims’ livelihoods. Utilizing a mixed methods design, this article combines a variety of interviews and surveys conducted among rural families and key stakeholders. This research reveals how by returning to their territories, people of Pitacapacho found a claim on their agricultural vocation, and a way to avoid being an “urban poor”. However, the transition from self-consumption to wage labor and the change of the agricultural land use to the development of extractive industries are issues that indicate how peasant's ideas and practices towards the territory have been challenged and transformed.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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Transformation of livelihoods in conflict-affected areas. The case of Pitacapacho in Montes de Maria, Colombia = Transformación de modos de vida en areas afectadas por el conflicto. El caso de Pitacapacho, en los Montes de María, Colombia

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Imagen de apoyo de  Street Capitalism: Informal Property Rights and their Enforcement in Bogota's On-Street Parking System

Street Capitalism: Informal Property Rights and their Enforcement in Bogota's On-Street Parking System

Por: Diego Laserna Arias | Fecha: 01/01/2016

This thesis explores how informal property rights are defined and enforced in the business of onstreet parking in Bogota. It establishes that informal businesses could not operate without such property rights and that the value of force has been underestimated in the scant literature devoted to the subject.To contribute to the construction of a currently non-existent informal property rights theory this thesis contrasts the research findings with traditional property rights theory and attempts to redefine classic property rights concepts to fit the context of the urban informal economy. Finally, the thesis explains how mafias can enforce informal property rights, the logic of their actions, and the dangers of their proliferation.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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Street Capitalism: Informal Property Rights and their Enforcement in Bogota's On-Street Parking System

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Imagen de apoyo de  Assisted suicide constitutionality in Colombia and the United States = Constitucionalidad del suicidio asistido en Colombia y los Estados Unidos

Assisted suicide constitutionality in Colombia and the United States = Constitucionalidad del suicidio asistido en Colombia y los Estados Unidos

Por: Nathalia Contreras Pardo | Fecha: 01/01/2016

This paper will present two cases that deal with the constitutionality of assisted suicide, Washington v. Glucksberg 521 U.S. 702 (1997) of the Supreme Court of the United States and the judgment C – 239/1997 of the Constitutional Court of Colombia. The main purpose is to examine the understanding that each court presents about the rights to liberty and life, how they balance them and the arguments that each one wield to arrive to different decisions. Also, the paper underlines what considers inconsistences in both judgments. To achieve that goal, the paper will present a brief description of the reasoning and holding of each judgment, then, it will discuss the rights at stake, the balancing done by the courts, the need of regulation on the issue, the role of the legislature on this regard, and physicians´ dilemmas. Lastly, it will provide some conclusions.Este documento presentará dos sentencias ques estudian la constitucionalidad del suicidio asistido, Washington v. Glucksberg 521 U.S. 702 (1997) de la Corte Suprema de los Estados Unidos y la sentencia C - 239/1997 de la Corte Constitucional de Colombia. El objetivo principal es examinar el análisis que cada tribunal presenta sobre los derechos a la libertad y la vida, cómo los pondera y los argumentos que cada uno maneja para llegar a decisiones diferentes. Además, el artículo subraya qué considera incoherente en cada decisión. Para lograr ese objetivo, el documento presentará una breve descripción del razonamiento y los argumentos de cada sentencia, luego, discutirá los derechos en tensión, la ponderación hecha por los tribunales, la necesidad de regulación sobre el tema, el papel del legislador en este sentido, y los dilemas de los médicos. Por último, proporcionará algunas conclusiones.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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Assisted suicide constitutionality in Colombia and the United States = Constitucionalidad del suicidio asistido en Colombia y los Estados Unidos

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Imagen de apoyo de  The Climatic Disruption, Systems thinking to interpret migration and conflict under climatic constraints: the case study of Syria and its applicability to the Colombian context = La Perturbación Climática, Pensamiento sistémico para la interpretación de conflicto y migración en escenarios con restricciones climáticas: el caso de Siria y su aplicabilidad en el contexto Colombiano

The Climatic Disruption, Systems thinking to interpret migration and conflict under climatic constraints: the case study of Syria and its applicability to the Colombian context = La Perturbación Climática, Pensamiento sistémico para la interpretación de conflicto y migración en escenarios con restricciones climáticas: el caso de Siria y su aplicabilidad en el contexto Colombiano

Por: Laura Florez Urazan | Fecha: 01/01/2017

Current policy-making understands human and ecological systems as independent, leading to the misconception that, though they interact, they can be managed separately. This often leads to policy overlooking the effects that the environment has on human structures, and vice versa. Under environmental stress, this disconnection may cause the community to fail, which can manifest in migration and conflict.In a climate-change scenario, it becomes increasingly important to consider social and environmental structures as one single system, that must be managed as a unit. Also, increasing the resilience of socio-ecological systems becomes a priority to prevent climatic disruptions to cause the system to collapse.This dissertation aims to learn from using systems thinking to interpret the Syrian crisis, following the 2006-2011 drought, and extract insights from using the same methodology in different contexts. This is done through the construction of two diagrams that help visualize socio-ecological system in a more accessible way, offering policy-makers an instrument to understand and manage socio-ecological systems more effectively. Finally, it discusses how these lessons can be helpful for the post-conflict process in Colombia, which shares many structural flaws with pre-conflict Syria, and explores how the methodology can be useful to identify and address these flaws for sustainable peace-building.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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The Climatic Disruption, Systems thinking to interpret migration and conflict under climatic constraints: the case study of Syria and its applicability to the Colombian context = La Perturbación Climática, Pensamiento sistémico para la interpretación de conflicto y migración en escenarios con restricciones climáticas: el caso de Siria y su aplicabilidad en el contexto Colombiano

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Imagen de apoyo de  Sustainability: a solution to the primary goods and capabilities dilemma = Sostenibilidad: una solución al dilema de los bienes primarios y las capacidades

Sustainability: a solution to the primary goods and capabilities dilemma = Sostenibilidad: una solución al dilema de los bienes primarios y las capacidades

Por: Ricardo Arturo Lapeira Támara | Fecha: 01/01/2018

Abstract Can we assess currencies of distributive justice based on whether they are sustainable or not? I believe the answer to this question is yes. In this thesis I discuss that it is possible and necessary to assess whether different currencies of distributive justice are sustainable. Sustainability as a desideratum of a theory of distributive justice can sometimes help decide what currency we should accept. I will also argue this applies to the case of two widely discussed currency approaches of distributive justice: primary goods, discussed by John Rawls, and capabilities, discussed by Amartya Sen. I will conclude that, when sustainability is considered, capabilities are a better currency of distributive justice. Resumen ¿Podemos evaluar distintos bienes de la justicia con relación a si estos son o no sostenibles? Creo firmemente que la respuesta a esta pregunta es sí. En esta tesis discuto que es posible y necesario evaluar si distintos bienes de la justicia distributiva son sostenibles. La sostenibilidad como desiderata de una teoría de la justicia distributiva puede en algunas ocasiones ayudarnos a decidir cuáles bienes debemos aceptar. Argumentaré que esto aplica para el caso de dos tipos de bienes de la justicia distributiva: los bienes primarios, de John Rawls, y las capacidades, de Amartya Sen. Concluiré afirmando que, cuando se considera la sostenibilidad, las capacidades son un bien superior de la justicia.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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Sustainability: a solution to the primary goods and capabilities dilemma = Sostenibilidad: una solución al dilema de los bienes primarios y las capacidades

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Imagen de apoyo de  Chapter 5. Improving hake advice considering stock-recruitment uncertainty: A Bayesian state-space size-structured population dynamics model for northern hake

Chapter 5. Improving hake advice considering stock-recruitment uncertainty: A Bayesian state-space size-structured population dynamics model for northern hake

Por: Margarita María; Cerviño Rincón Hidalgo | Fecha: 01/01/2015

En este capítulo se presentan los resultados de un modelo bayesiano para la merluza del Atlántico norte, una especie que es poco vulnerable a cambios medio ambientales pero cuya biología todavía no es completamente conocida, ya que el crecimiento de la especie aún no se ha determinado con exactitud. Los resultados presentados comparan escenarios donde se utiliza información de diversos stocks de merluza para estimar parámetros biológicos como la mortalidad natural, la tasa de crecimiento y el reclutamiento máximo, con otros donde estos parámetros se asumen constantes. Texto tomado de la “Introducción general” de esta tesis.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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Chapter 5. Improving hake advice considering stock-recruitment uncertainty: A Bayesian state-space size-structured population dynamics model for northern hake

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Imagen de apoyo de  Chapter 2. The economic value of environmental data: A notional insurance scheme for the European anchovy

Chapter 2. The economic value of environmental data: A notional insurance scheme for the European anchovy

Por: Margarita María; Levontin Rincón Hidalgo | Fecha: 01/01/2015

Este capítulo presenta el trabajo desarrollado también en el marco del proyecto ECOKNOWS. El trabajo permite responder a la pregunta de cómo medir el riesgo asociado a una estrategia de pesca que incorpore el efecto del medio ambiente, desde un enfoque inspirado en la gestión del sector agrícola. Aquí se compara una estrategia que tiene en cuenta el medio ambiente con otra que lo ignora en diversos escenarios, usando un patrón de medida que facilita la comunicación de resultados a los gestores del recurso. Texto tomado y adaptado de la “Introducción general” de esta tesis.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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Chapter 2. The economic value of environmental data: A notional insurance scheme for the European anchovy

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Imagen de apoyo de  Technical Guidelines for Nutrient Recovery and Water Reuse in Agriculture and Industry by Analysis, Design and Operation of Treat & Reuse Membrane Bioreactors [MBR] in Europe

Technical Guidelines for Nutrient Recovery and Water Reuse in Agriculture and Industry by Analysis, Design and Operation of Treat & Reuse Membrane Bioreactors [MBR] in Europe

Por: Andrés Camilo Acosta Peláez | Fecha: 01/01/2016

On average, 44% of total water abstraction in Europe is used in agriculture. Evidence of water scarcity in Europe is borne out by research that shows increasing strain on water resources in 30% of EU member states. Current research seems to validate the view that wastewater treatment and reuse is a technical opportunity to address the imbalances between agricultural water demand and European water resources in the long term. Currently, just 2.4% of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are reused, and thus the water reuse potential in Europe remains high. This document reports on and analyses the performance of a prototype-scale plant installed to treat real wastewater in rural Spain using a Treat & Reuse Membrane Bioreactor (T&R MBR). It shows that the T&R MBR is an improvement on MBR operations due to the fact that it produced a solids-free, nutrient rich and high-quality permeate in which Escherichia Coli was removed to values < 1 ufc/100ml. Furthermore, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Turbidity and Suspended Solids (SS) were typically lowered to concentrations below the legal limit established in countries such as France, Italy, Spain, Greece, Cyprus and Portugal. Additionally, the system was able to extract nutrients from the wastewater inflow and to retain them in the permeate at 80% and 60% of the Nitrogen (once transformed to Nitrates) and Phosphorous, respectively. These results, combined with the continuing reduction of capital and operating costs for the T&R MBRs, suggest that they are an increasingly cost-effective technology for producing treated effluents suitable for water reuse in agriculture.This study also suggests possible limitations regarding the fate of micro-pollutants during treatment. Nevertheless, the system works efficiently so long as the wastewater input meets the typical composition of raw municipal wastewater with minor contributions of industrial wastewater. This would imply low concentration of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) and Heavy Metals, as well as slight to moderate salinity (i.e. 0.7-3.0 dS/m). In spite of the fact that the T&R MBR technology can reduce the fresh water and fertilizer consumption of the agriculture sector, this system cannot be implemented in countries where the legislation restricts the reuse of effluents with significant concentrations of Nitrates and Phosphorous (e.g., Germany). Therefore, the present document suggests a set of technical criteria addressing the European challenges regarding water reuse in agriculture.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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Technical Guidelines for Nutrient Recovery and Water Reuse in Agriculture and Industry by Analysis, Design and Operation of Treat & Reuse Membrane Bioreactors [MBR] in Europe

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