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Imagen de apoyo de  Las finanzas públicas territoriales en Colombia: dos décadas de cambios

Las finanzas públicas territoriales en Colombia: dos décadas de cambios

Por: Jaime Alfredo; Pérez Valbuena Bonet Morón

Resumen extendido El panorama de las finanzas de las entidades territoriales en Colombia ha cambiado sustancialmente en los últimos 20 años. Su dinámica ha estado estrechamente relacionada con la descentralización y las normas que la regulan. Desde su concepción, se buscaba mejorar la situación de las finanzas y la autonomía de las entidades territoriales, a través del fortalecimiento de los recursos propios y de las transferencias del gobierno central. Aunque han sido múltiples las medidas a través de las cuales se ha buscado profundizar el proceso de descentralización, lo cierto es que el país está aún lejos de alcanzar un estado óptimo. Aquel en el que se logre un equilibrio de todas las dimensiones que les permita a los gobiernos subnacionales una mayor autonomía y los recursos necesarios para ofrecer a sus habitantes mayor calidad de vida, con menor pobreza y mayor equidad. Con el fin de tener una perspectiva de largo plazo de las finanzas de municipios y departamentos, este documento tiene el objetivo de presentar la evolución de las principales cuentas de los gobiernos subnacionales durante las dos décadas entre 1996 y 2015. El análisis se realizó por tipo de entidad territorial y por regiones. Se pretende además observar los cambios generados a partir de las diferentes reformas, en las transferencias y regalías, en la situación financiera de las entidades territoriales. El análisis no se limita únicamente a la evolución de las cuentas agregadas de estas entidades territoriales, sino que, en reconocimiento a las significativas disparidades regionales, se presentan los resultados para cada región. Cada una de ellas tiene una base económica y una capacidad de generar ingresos propios diferentes, lo que es determinante fundamental de una realidad socioeconómica distinta para sus habitantes. Los resultados permiten señalar tres grandes cambios en las finanzas territoriales durante las últimas dos décadas: (1) que el proceso descentralizador ha robustecido las finanzas de los municipios y departamentos, especialmente para los primeros a causa de la mayor fortaleza tributaria que han dejado las reformas administrativas y la coyuntura económica nacional; (2) en el ámbito regional se evidencian tendencias similares pero con significativas disparidades, con mayor desventaja para la periferia; (3) aunque la dependencia de las transferencias continua alta, no hay evidencias de una relación negativa entre el crecimiento de las transferencias y las regalías y los ingresos propios de las los gobiernos subnacionales. AbstractThe context of the Colombian subnational finances have changed during the last years. These changes have been closely related to fiscal decentralization and its regulatory standards. The main objective of this paper is to show the evolution of the subnational governments’ main financial accounts between 1996 and 2015. The analysis is carried out by type of territorial entity and also by regions. Results show that decentralization has actually strengthen municipalities and departments’ finances, especially the former because of the higher tax robustness given by administrative reforms and the national economic situation. At regional level, we found similar trends but significant disparities, with the highest in peripheral regions. On the other hand, even when transfers’ dependency is still high, it is also true that there is no evidence of a negative relationship between transfers and royalties’ growth and the growth of the subnational governments’ own revenues.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Publicador Bogotá: Banco de la República
  • Año de Publicación 2018
  • Idioma Español
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros

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Las finanzas públicas territoriales en Colombia: dos décadas de cambios

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Imagen de apoyo de  La pobreza en Santa Marta: los Estragos del Bien

La pobreza en Santa Marta: los Estragos del Bien

Por: Adolfo Meisel Roca

Resumen extendidoEn 2017, el porcentaje de personas viviendo en condición de pobreza monetaria en Santa Marta fue de 33%. Con este resultado, la ciudad se ubicó como la tercera con mayor pobreza en la región Caribe, superada solo por Riohacha y Valledupar. Esto contrasta con lo que se vivió tres décadas atrás. En 1985, el indicador de necesidades básicas insatisfechas (NBI) posicionó a Santa Marta como la ciudad con menor pobreza entre las ocho capitales de la costa Caribe. La pregunta es entonces: ¿cuándo inició el retroceso? En el periodo 1985-1993, mientras que Cartagena y Barranquilla redujeron su pobreza en 9 puntos porcentuales, la de Santa Marta aumentó en 1 punto porcentual. Siguiendo esta tendencia, Santa Marta sería superada por estas dos ciudades y esto se mantendría para el dato más reciente de pobreza por NBI de 2005.El estudio de la pobreza en Santa Marta es indispensable para plantear soluciones adecuadas que permitan avanzar en su superación. Este documento tiene tres objetivos principales: (i) realizar una caracterización espacial de la pobreza en Santa Marta, (ii) investigar las razones de su rezago relativo en reducción de pobreza y (iii) proponer una serie de inversiones para llevar la pobreza de la ciudad al promedio que tendrán las 23 ciudades principales e intermedias en 2030. La información espacial y los mapas son de gran utilidad para identificar los lugares donde se concentran los más pobres, así como para conocer sus principales necesidades. Por su parte, algunos antecedentes históricos de la segunda mitad del siglo XX, permiten tener una aproximación al retroceso vivido.El trabajo encuentra que uno de los hechos relacionados con el aumento relativo de la pobreza fue la llegada masiva de desplazados a la ciudad. Según el Registro Único de Víctimas, en el periodo 1985-2017, Santa Marta fue la tercera ciudad que más recibió desplazados en el país, solo después de Bogotá y Medellín. Este crecimiento poblacional resultó en la concentración de pobreza en las faldas de los cerros aledaños y en algunas zonas del casco urbano, en donde son recurrentes la falta de servicios públicos y el bajo logro educativo de la población. Precisamente, es en este último tema donde se encuentran los principales retos de la ciudad. Santa Marta ocupa los últimos lugares en indicadores de calidad educativa: en las pruebas Saber 11 de 2017 los estudiantes samarios solo superaron a los de Quibdó.Para superar el rezago en pobreza, se deben entonces priorizar inversiones en cuatro sectores: educación, vivienda, acueducto y alcantarillado, y empleo. El costo total aproximado de estas inversiones es de 433 millones de dólares en los próximos 12 años, los cuales se podrían financiar con un mayor esfuerzo fiscal local y una mayor calidad del gasto público. Implementar esta estrategia permitirá revertir la tendencia mencionada y llevar la pobreza de Santa Marta al promedio que tendrán las 23 ciudades principales e intermedias de Colombia en 2030. Abstract In 1985, Santa Marta was the city with the lowest level of structural poverty in the Caribbean region. Three decades later, in 2017, Santa Marta had the third highest monetary poverty rate in the region, only lower than Riohacha and Valledupar. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to characterize poverty and its spatial dimension in Santa Marta. Second, to understand the causes of the lag in poverty reduction. And third, to propose a set of investments to overcome this lag. The analysis shows that one of the main factors associated with poverty in the city was the massive arrival of displaced people starting in 1990. The maps, meanwhile, show the appearance of misery belts in the surrounding foothills and in some areas inside the urban perimeter, where poverty is correlated with informality and low educational attainment of the population. All in all, results reveal investment priorities in four sectors: education, housing, water and sewage, and employment.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Publicador Bogotá: Banco de la República
  • Año de Publicación 2018
  • Idioma Español
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros

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La pobreza en Santa Marta: los Estragos del Bien

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Imagen de apoyo de  Relation between environmental factors and children’s development in one central american orphanage

Relation between environmental factors and children’s development in one central american orphanage

Por: Claudia Patricia Ovalle Ramírez

The present study reports results from the evaluation of the environmental conditions of an orphanage in Managua, Nicaragua and their associations with the children’s development while they were still in the orphanage. The observational measures were obtained by trained assessors (Caregiver Child Socioemotional Relationship Scale or CCSERS and the physical environment measures ITERS and ECERS ).The analysis was conducted at the unit level of the ward, an approached not taken in previous research. The results support the crucial role of the caregiving environment in the development of institutional children. The results of the present study show a positive and strong relationship between the caregiving environment (behavioral environment measured with CCSERRS) and the development of children (measured with BDI) in one Latino orphanage.The changes in the developmental outcomes of the institutionalized children at the post intervention period are not only a product of changes in the physical environment of the wards (e.g., the relationship between the Total ITERS - ECERS score and the total Battelle was positive but non-significant). These changes are more related to the improvement of the caregiver child interactions (the behavioral environment) in the wards.However, the environmental scales (ITERS-ECERS) and the CCERRSS have a positive but not strong association indicating that the physical aspects of environment are associated with the quality of caregiver-child interactions at the level of the wards. Thus both, physical and behavioral environment must be improved in orphanages, but socio-emotional aspects are more influential in the proper development of children. Previous studies had established the relationship between the environment and the development of children but the present study offers evidence at the ward versus the institutional level.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2011
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros

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Relation between environmental factors and children’s development in one central american orphanage

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Imagen de apoyo de  Critically evaluate the extent to which the english courts may award damages for breach of a jurisdiction agreement

Critically evaluate the extent to which the english courts may award damages for breach of a jurisdiction agreement

Por: Natalia Moreno Prieto

Following Zoller, Akar and Donohue there has been much debate about the possibility of claiming damages for breach of a JA under the common law system. The debate has also been extended to the question of whether a claim on damages may be an alternative under the framework of Brussels Regulations I, particularly in the present context where the European Court of Justice has expressly precluded the use of traditional common law tools to enforce JAs.In this essay I intent to identify, from the existing common law cases, what conditions are required to ground a claim on damages for breach of a JA and if such claim would be compatible with the Brussels Regulation I. For this purpose I will also consider the work of different authors in the subject.However Briggs’ work will be central to my study as it is one of the most complete works on damages for breach of JAs. I will also briefly examine if the reforms introduced by the Re-Cast EC1215/2012 change the conclusion reached in respect of the current Brussels Regulation I.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2015
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros
    • Ciencias sociales

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Critically evaluate the extent to which the english courts may award damages for breach of a jurisdiction agreement

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Imagen de apoyo de  Redrawing the coast

Redrawing the coast

Por: Diego Guillermo; Huang Bermúdez Obregón

After many years of violence and economic isolation, Colombia’s image has shifted. Several international treaties have been signed and Colombia has been targeted by new travelers and powerful international investors. A forbidden destination less than a decade ago, Colombia welcomes now more than 2 million visitors per year. This rapid economic and touristic boom provides good opportunities for growth but is having dramatic consequences for urban communities and its surrounding ecosystems.The Caribbean region of Colombia is one of the most visited regions in the country. Unfortunately, cities in the region don’t have the tools or the criteria to expand in a sustainable way in terms of competitiveness, social inclusion and urban quality. The perception of the Caribbean coast in Colombia is the one of a line. Development has occurred ignoring the immediate context, trying to imitate the image of the internationally sold Caribbean paradise, disregarding and threatening a unique environment. Along this coast, there are five natural parks. It is one of the most biodiverse spots in the globe. Half of the tourists coming to the country will visit one or two of these natural parks. Nonetheless, tourism, urban expansion and uncontrolled growth are jeopardizing the uniqueness of this region, ruining its diverse natural assets.The Caribbean coast is one of the fastest growing regions in Colombia, with an overall growth rate that will double the population by 2050. Recent growth trends suggest that new development has been rapidly taking over the coast with gated apartment towers, hotels and exclusive resorts up on the coast interrupting public access to the beach. Meanwhile, informality sprawls in the back drop, creeping up the hills, into the marshes, dangerously close to protected areas. A linear wall-city parallel to the coast is being created by these trends for short-term profits, undermining environments, increasing flood risk, promoting social instability and finally.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2015
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros
    • Arte

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Redrawing the coast

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Imagen de apoyo de  UNFRAMED: a system of connections between artists and people through mural arts in a Colombian city

UNFRAMED: a system of connections between artists and people through mural arts in a Colombian city

Por: Sarah Thénot Tejada

The current global context is characterized by a growing importance on relations and the creation of links between different actors. Contemporary artists have to deal with different connection’s skills to succeed in their carriers and to make their work visible to a wider audience and potential collectors. However these opportunities are not constant because the system is very competitive. There is high offer and low demand, which is also affected by the economical crisis. Additionally, art continues to be considered a luxury item for few ones. In developing countries, low demand is not only due to crisis, but also to the fact that art is a secondary issue for common people. Moreover the culture of appreciating and acquiring art is under development.From this scenario, the thesis aims to answer the following question; how to make visual arts more accessible to common people and at the same time to bring to the artist new markets and visibility for his work? A product-service system is proposed to give answer to the main question. “Unframed” provides an innovative space to show murals, where artists become the protagonists and art becomes accessible to everyone in different ways. The service is based in an online platform which is feed by artists’ portfolios and temporal murals made in the city. It is also complemented by limited series of mural reproduction; touch points in common places and a closer relation artist-user. The system uses different strategies to make it valuable for the artist, the user, the city and stakeholders. Reducing the gap between artists and the public, it establishes lasting relationships and encourages fresh market scenarios.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2010
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros

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UNFRAMED: a system of connections between artists and people through mural arts in a Colombian city

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Imagen de apoyo de  Adaptable Morphodynamics

Adaptable Morphodynamics

Por: María Fernanda; Daurelio Chaparro

Adaptable Morphodynamics addresses the development of complex high density urban systems over space and time. Building morphologies can be conceived as living organisms that change in form, shape and structure through the interaction of physical, informational and geometrical processes. This research focuses on density, environmental quality and spatial identity. These studies are extended to present-day Hong Kong and addresses a design system that aims to reinterpret spatial logics, connected with local socio-cultural attributes, into a set of rules and code for an “intelligent densification”.From the data gathered, two strategies are developed in parallel and as they become more defined, they begin to inform one another until a holistic urban approach is developed. Urban porosity and Urban growth at different scales (neighbourhood, plot and building) become the key design tools to achieve environmental performance, in terms of urban ventilation, housing public programmes, and maximizing pedestrian and bicycle accessibility for all people through a fluid mobility network at ground and multiple layers of connectivity.Existing building morphologies are transformed computationally into porous organisms and are used to construct accurate models of growth for regaining the lost demographic pressure. Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms are employed to generate a complex urban design model. This is characterized by the emergence of public green areas, integration of socio-cultural amenities within the existing building morphologies and by generation of a comfortable outdoor microclimate, at different operational scales.The improvement of the well-being of the urban population could be achieved through a spatial approach based on principles of social inclusion, especially in the most deprived areas of the patch, characterized by illegal and informal settlements, known as “rooftop villages or sky-slums”. The main target, in the long term, will be to develop an “urban intelligence” that takes into account the mutual relation between demographic demand, site constraints and the potentialities and limitations of the architectural targets.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2014
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros

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Adaptable Morphodynamics

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Imagen de apoyo de  Justice and peace? A just post bellum ethical critical analysis to 2005 colombian peace process

Justice and peace? A just post bellum ethical critical analysis to 2005 colombian peace process

Por: María Emilia Lleras Ronderos

Colombia internal conflict between paramilitary armies and the central government is a topic that has been studied widely from different perspectives, including, but not limited to, studies on forced disappearance, internal displacement, the war on drugs, and the incidence of United States in Colombian internal warfare (Richani, 2013; Acemoglu et al., 2013; Aviléz, 2006; Dube & Naidu, 2015). By contrast, 2005 peace process between Colombian government and illegal paramilitary armies grouped under the umbrella organization named United Self-defense Forces of Colombia (AUC), has not been addressed with the same dedication. The objective of the present research is to analyze the 2005 Colombian peace-settlement through the scope of jus post bellum theory, aiming to see the possible deviations of the peace process from a just war theory moral perspective. According to jus post bellum theorist, a just peace-settlement can help to avoid repetition, while an unjust one can derive into new confrontation (Bell, 2013; Turner Johnson, 2012; Philpott, 2010). By achieving this goal this project intends to provide an ethical reflection on the course of action followed in Colombia to finish war with the self-defense armies, and to enrich Colombian debate about peace policy making in a time when the government is now negotiating a new peace settlement with FARC guerrilla.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2015
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros
    • Ciencia política

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Justice and peace? A just post bellum ethical critical analysis to 2005 colombian peace process

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Imagen de apoyo de  How could the vernacular architecture and crafts of the Andean region inspire the creation of an interior installation that is designed to convey a personal interpretation of the tensions associated with the current internal conflict in Colombia

How could the vernacular architecture and crafts of the Andean region inspire the creation of an interior installation that is designed to convey a personal interpretation of the tensions associated with the current internal conflict in Colombia

Por: María Paula Jurado Echeverri

The aim of this report is to demonstrate and explore how the vernacular architecture and crafts of the Andean region of Colombia could inspire the creation of an interior installation that is designed to convey a personal interpretation of the tensions associated with the current internal conflict in Colombia and a sincere aspiration for sustainable peace. To approach this hypothesis, the perspectives of experts in those matters were imperative and guided the further research of alternative secondary methods that included books, journals, and official publications.The main structure of the report attempts to address three principal chapters. The first chapter intends to recognise and highlight the importance of Guadua to the vernacular architecture and crafts associated with the Andean region of Colombia. The second chapter focuses on the investigation of the current trends and science behind narrative design and the infinite possibilities of storytelling in exhibitions and set design. Finally, the third chapter explores the current internal conflict between the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) and Colombia’s National Government, which in theory is being tried to be resolved from the study of peace agreements and new possibilities for both parts achieving justice and repair.Findings obtained throughout the research and analytical process show that Guadua’s characteristics as a construction material represent a new insight in the scenario of a sustainable world. Furthermore, Colombia’s ongoing conflict, although it depends on many factors, should be acknowledged globally and has the potential to be tackled from a new artistic perspective, where an interior installation encodes a sincere aspiration for sustainable peace.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2014
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros
    • Arte

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How could the vernacular architecture and crafts of the Andean region inspire the creation of an interior installation that is designed to convey a personal interpretation of the tensions associated with the current internal conflict in Colombia

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Imagen de apoyo de  How can the participation of Johnny Cay workers support the FreshWaterMill project? Systems and bottom-up approach to a technology transfer from The Netherlands to Johnny Cay, San Andrés, Colombia

How can the participation of Johnny Cay workers support the FreshWaterMill project? Systems and bottom-up approach to a technology transfer from The Netherlands to Johnny Cay, San Andrés, Colombia

Por: Diana Carolina Palacios Giraldo

The FreshWaterMill project is a transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology (EST) from The Netherlands to Colombia that involves several Dutch companies, the Delft University of Technology and Coralina (corporation for sustainable development of the Archipelago San Andrés, Providence and Saint Kathleen). The installation place is Johnny Cay, a small islet 1.5 km northeast from San Andrés, Colombia, uninhabited and exclusive for touristic use (Van Tonningen, 2014).The technology is a wind powered reverse osmosis (RO) system that can fulfil the drinkable water and electricity demands of the Cay. This way can be alleviated the sanitary conditions resulting from unsustainable touristic practices. Moreover, this project is seen as a promoter of sustainable development in the Archipelago (Coralina, 2006), and as a potential solution to provide electricity and water to rural and remote areas of low utility coverage but abundant wind power.There are no environmental or social impact analyses that validate the sustainable character of the technology transfer. Moreover, although it is intended to improve the livelihood of target users their opinions are not reflected in the project plans. This situation resembles those factors that describe the trend to failure of technology transfers. Therefore this research made an integral assessment of the project as a Socio-Technical System (STS) to provide useful findings and recommendations that could lead it away from such trend.The Functions of Innovation Systems (FIS) framework (Van Alphen, 2008) was chosen for a systems approach analysis. Through this was found that poor planning, insufficient financial resources and ineffective communication channels are the most relevant barriers for a successful implementation of the FreshWaterMill. The most relevant drivers are the suitability of the place for a wind/RO system, the planning of a local educational center, a remarkable advocacy for Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) in the Archipelago and the existence of local human capital and R&D on RE.Five conditions for self-organization were derived from the PAR (Participatory Action Research) methodology to explore the likeliness of self-organization for bottom-up management. Through this methodology was shown that the difficult relationship between the corporation and the touristic service providers, their lack of group cohesion, managerial and operational capacities, ignorance and/or misuse of instruments for self-organization, make unfeasible for this group to address the barriers and support the drivers of the project.Relevant conditions from the context not covered by the previous methodologies were also included. These reflected that the advocacy for RETs is counteracted by the fragmentation between institutional actors and their lack of managerial skills on technology topics, which makes them rely on national and international assistance to achieve a technological transition. The regular interaction that Johnny Cay workers will have with the windmill, the affinity of the life plan of young adults to the project objectives and the likeliness of this group to make economic contributions urges the need for a participatory approach. The socio-cultural crisis of the Archipelago supports this recommendation. However, the difficulty of institutional entities to understand and assume the roles that require a participatory approach and the path dependency on top-down regulation makes it a complex challenge.A participatory approach for the FreshWaterMill is indirectly supported by the management plan of the Natural Regional Park Johnny Cay and the Community and institutional participation board. Additional to the commitment of the corporation to assume an enabling role, the process needs a mediator so the touristic service.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2016
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros
    • Ingeniería

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How can the participation of Johnny Cay workers support the FreshWaterMill project? Systems and bottom-up approach to a technology transfer from The Netherlands to Johnny Cay, San Andrés, Colombia

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