Baldíos desde la perspectiva de patrimonio nacional y la eficaz protección ambiental
Álvaro Hernando Cardona González
From the specialty of Land Rights or Agrarian Law; the legal science has a great challenge in Colombia to avoid the social conflicts that may arise when distributing the rural territorial surface among those who want it and are apt to exploit it, the incessant demand growth for new available land for agricultural or livestock exploitation, the growing needs of non-renewable natural resources and the constitutional obligation of natural conservation to guarantee the sustainable development of the Nation. In other words, it is evident that the need to guarantee food sustainability or in order to satisfy other economic intentions, put pressure on the availability of more areas for exploitation. There is also the need of preserve areas of special ecological importance and the protection and increase public patrimony that is in the territory. ¿How to do all this simultaneously and legally possible? Although in Colombia it is frequently said that the land is unequally distributed, for various reasons, the truth is that most of it is occupied. Or because whoever owns it has titles of ownership or private property over it, or because it is occupied and exploited without title due to the carelessness of its private or state owner. And it is about this last situation that we will focus on; because society’s main concern must be how to avoid the illegal occupation of fiscal or state assets and public property owned by the Nation under State administration, and especially in the latter case, the moorland that should remain as wastelands to guarantee that they never remain occupy or adjudge like the ideal strategy of conservation by his immeasurable Currently the normative frameworks have been overwhelmed in their purpose of protecting vacant goods (for the needs of guaranteeing sustainable development and at the same time safeguarding the national fiscal patrimony) and some decisions of the courts, Constitutional and Supreme Court, possibly without aiming for it, they have increased the possibilities of this happening under the healthy intention that the people who occupy them do not see their fundamental rights undermined. ¿How to avoid it? At the same time, there has been high interest to effectively protect certain areas of the national territory, such as the moorland, the sanctuaries of flora and fauna, and national natural parks (the last two already legally included as protected natural areas), including agricultural activities to dedicate them exclusively to natural conservation which diminishes the possibilities of administrative adjudications by way of agricultural development and the
protection of the rural man and at the same time, by reserving real estate as an inventory of the national patrimony. The formulas that are proposed to solve this situation and to answer the previous questions start from conceptual clarities and from common sense as a fundamental pillar of a public policy that reconciles the agricultural and environmental interests that, we discover, are intimately linked.