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Imagen de apoyo de  A multi-level framework for metabolism in urban energy systems from an ecological perspective = Un modelo en niveles para el metabolismo urbano en sistemas energéticos desde una perspectiva ecológica

A multi-level framework for metabolism in urban energy systems from an ecological perspective = Un modelo en niveles para el metabolismo urbano en sistemas energéticos desde una perspectiva ecológica

Por: Paola; Rosales Carreón Pulido Barrera | Fecha: 01/01/2017

Abstract:Cities have become the main centres of consumption and transformation of resources. As cities are still growing in terms of physical size, number of inhabitants and total energy consumption, unique challenges present themselves in order to safeguard a healthy urban living environment, while preventing resource shortages and pollution. The concept of urban metabolism may contribute to sustainable growth of cities as it can be used to understand emergent patterns in flows of energy and materials in the urban environment. The concept of urban metabolism draws upon an analogy with the biological meaning of metabolism, as it occurs in organisms and ecosystems. Here we present a review of the interpretation of urban metabolism in the context of urban energy dynamics and assess the validity of the proposed analogy with biology. Based on this analogy, we propose a conceptual framework for the role of urban metabolism in urban energy systems. Our review highlights that urban energy systems show a hierarchical organization comparable to ecological systems. However, the emergent patterns that result from the dynamics within urban systems differ from those occurring within ecological systems. We suggest that, in contrast to biological systems, urban energy systems lack energetic constraints at the lowest level of organisation that could enable the resource-efficient regulation of energy requirements at larger scales. The proposed framework highlights that low-level resource supply regulations may contribute to introduce scale-dependent relationships that increase energy use efficiency as cities grow.Resumen: Las ciudades han llegado a ser grandes centros de consumo y transformación de recursos. Debido a que las ciudades se mantienen en constante crecimiento en términos de tamaño físico, número de habitantes y consumo de energía, surge la necesidad de afrontar retos evidentes con el fin de salvaguardar el ambiente urbano, así como prevenir la escasez de recursos y el aumento de polución. El metabolismo urbano puede contribuir a explicar el crecimiento sostenible de las ciudades, ya que éste permite entender la emergencia de patrones en los flujos de energía y materiales en el ambiente urbano. Éste se basa en la analogía con el metabolismo en sistemas biológicos, el cual está presente tanto a nivel de organismos como de ecosistemas. En este artículo se plantea una revisión de la interpretación del metabolismo urbano en el contexto de sistemas energéticos urbanos. A partir de dicha revisión se plantea que los sitemas energéticos urbanos muestran una organización jerárquica comparable a la de los sistemas biológicos. No obstante, los patrones emergentes que resultan de la dinámica en los sistemas urbanos difieren de aquellos que ocurren en los sistemas biológicos. Nosotros sugerimos que, a diferencia de los sistemas biológicos, los sistemas urbanos no presentan limitaciones energéticas en los niveles inferiores de la organización, que trasciendan en una eficiente regulacion de los consumos energéticos en los niveles superiores del sistema. El marco conceptual propuesto en este artículo resalta que una regulación en el abastecimiento de recursos en los niveles inferiores, puede llegar a inducir relaciones de carácter alométrico que representen un aumento en la eficiencia energética en la medida que las ciudades continuan con su crecimiento.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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A multi-level framework for metabolism in urban energy systems from an ecological perspective = Un modelo en niveles para el metabolismo urbano en sistemas energéticos desde una perspectiva ecológica

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Imagen de apoyo de  A Musical Journey through the National Gallery of Ireland / Promenade: Un viaje musical a través de la Galería Nacional de Irlanda

A Musical Journey through the National Gallery of Ireland / Promenade: Un viaje musical a través de la Galería Nacional de Irlanda

Por: Andrés Gallo Molina | Fecha: 01/01/2016

Esta es la segunda parte de la tesis, en la que se encuentran partituras musicales y otros anexos que sirven de complemento al estudio realizado por el autor Promenade: A Musical Journey through the National Gallery of Ireland is a work based on the vision of guiding a visitor through a virtual tour of five exhibits at the National Gallery. Each piece of art has been carefully selected to ensure a variety of themes, and to highlight the broad range of artwork on public display in the National Gallery. These pieces of art have been analysed in terms of their style and historical significance. Five musical compositions have then been created to complement each artwork. The music reflects not only the subjects of the artwork but also the tone, style and artistic techniques of each piece. The result is a multisensory experience for the art enthusiast. What once could be enjoyed merely visually can now be experienced in a manner that actively engages the aural sense also. Promenade: A Musical Journey through the National Gallery of Ireland Es un trabajo basado en la visión de un visitante a través de cinco pinturas de la Galería Nacional de Irlanda. Cada pieza de arte ha sido meticulosamente seleccionada para asegurar una variedad de temas y resaltar el amplio rango de arte dispuesto al público en la galería. Estas piezas han sido analizadas en términos de estilo, estructura y significado histórico. Cinco composiciones musicales fueron creadas posteriormente para complementar las pinturas. Las cinco composiciones reflejan no sólo el tema de la pintura sino el tono, estilo y técnica artística de cada pieza. El resultado es una experiencia multisensorial para el entusiasta artístico. lo que alguna vez se podía disfrutar visualmente , ahora puede ser experimentado en una manera que activa el sentido auditivo.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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A Musical Journey through the National Gallery of Ireland / Promenade: Un viaje musical a través de la Galería Nacional de Irlanda

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Imagen de apoyo de  A New Material Balance Methodology for Quintuple Porosity Shale Gas and Shale Condensate Reservoirs

A New Material Balance Methodology for Quintuple Porosity Shale Gas and Shale Condensate Reservoirs

Por: Daniel Ricardo Orozco Ibarra | Fecha: 01/01/2016

Abstract:A recent petrophysical formulation states that all the storage mechanisms present in shale reservoirs are best represented by a quintuple porosity system that is further fed by dissolved gas in the solid kerogen. The quintuple porosity system is made up of:1) adsorbed gas in the pore walls of the organic matter.2) free gas stored in the inorganic matrix porosity.3) free gas stored in natural fractures (microfractures and slot porosity)4) free gas stored in the hydraulic fractures created around the wellbore by the stimulation job.5) free gas stored in the organic nanopores. This thesis presents a new material balance methodology for shale gas and shale condensate reservoirs that considers all the aforementioned storage mechanisms.Results lead to the conclusion that ignoring the effects of gas diffusion from kerogen in shale material balance calculations can lead to pessimistic estimates of both OGIP and production forecasts.Resumen:Una formulación petrofísica reciente indica que todos los mecanismos de almacenamiento presentes en yacimientos de lutita son representados por un sistema de quíntuple porosidad que, además, se alimenta de gas disuelto en el kerógeno sólido.El sistema de quíntuple porosidad está compuesto de:1) gas adsorbido en las paredes de los poros en la materia orgánica.2) gas libre almacenado en la porosidad de la matriz inorgánica.3) gas libre almacenado en las fracturas naturales (microfracturas y porosidad ranurada).4) gas libre almacenado en las fracturas hidráulicas creadas alrededor de la cara del pozo por el trabajo de estimulación.5) gas libre almacenado en los nanoporos de la materia orgánica.Esta tesis presenta una nueva metodología para balance de materia de yacimientos de lutita de gas y gas condensado que considera todos los mecanismos de almacenamiento previamente mencionados. Los resultados permiten concluir que si los efectos de la difusión de gas del kerógeno son ignorados en los cálculos de balance de materia en yacimientos de lutita, pueden obtenerse estimados pesimistas tanto de gas original en sitio como de los pronósticos de producción.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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A New Material Balance Methodology for Quintuple Porosity Shale Gas and Shale Condensate Reservoirs

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Imagen de apoyo de  A political ecology of Northwest Amazonia: Indigenous ‘Management of the World’ and the Politics of Territorial Ordering in Colombia

A political ecology of Northwest Amazonia: Indigenous ‘Management of the World’ and the Politics of Territorial Ordering in Colombia

Por: Oscar Alfredo Forero Larrañaga | Fecha: 01/01/2002

This thesis provides a description of political conflicts derived from differences in perspectives of environmental management and governance for Northwest Amazonia (NWA). A chapter is devoted to analysing the impact of State security policy in the development of indigenous’ territorial rights. The chapter concludes that the Colombian and USA government discourses of security coincide that the derived policies increase environmental risks and hinder indigenous peoples’ rights.Survey forms are treated as an additional source of discourse and are used to illustrate different perspectives with respect to governance and territorial ordering in Amazonia. It is argued that inhabitants of the industrialised countries with access to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in many senses share the responsibility for the actual state of affairs in NWA, as well as other parts of the developing world where there is precarious access to ICT.Central to the thesis is the idea that we are passing through a moment of conceptual ‘dissolution’: dissolution of the divide ‘Indigenous Knowledge’ / ‘Western Sciences’, of the distinction between ‘Social Resistance’ and ‘Social Adaptation’, and of the differentiation between ‘Corporate Management’ and ‘State Security policy’. The thesis describes how this dissolution is occurring at the same time as cultural identity is mutating. The thesis goes beyond discourses surrounding the governance of NWA, by offering a contemporary critique of the concept of ‘globalisation’, and an attempt to locate it in the a 21st century cultural context.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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A political ecology of Northwest Amazonia: Indigenous ‘Management of the World’ and the Politics of Territorial Ordering in Colombia

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Imagen de apoyo de  A practical approach in glycerol oxidation for the development of a glycerol fuel cell = Enfoque práctico en oxidación de glicerol para el desarrollo de la celda de combustible de glicerol

A practical approach in glycerol oxidation for the development of a glycerol fuel cell = Enfoque práctico en oxidación de glicerol para el desarrollo de la celda de combustible de glicerol

Por: Diego Fernando; Ten Kortenaar Quintero Pulido | Fecha: 01/01/2017

The research on electrochemical carbon molecule oxidation started in the past years as new electrochemistries were researched for new fuel cells systems and batteries that may line up as backup energy supply and storage systems in off-grid and on-grid microgrids, as modeled by our group at the University of Twente [1-3]. By lining up these two disciplines we hope to support the bridge between new electrochemical systems on one side, (pilot) production with partner companies, prediction, and validation of systems upon implementation in microgrids by our group.The electrochemical oxidation of glycerol in alkaline aqueous solution has been studied on gold and gold coated metals (Zn-Au and Cu-Au) by voltammetry and EIS (Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) for possible use in a new fuel cell as an outlet for the excess glycerol that is produced in the biodiesel industry. The observations show that the gold surface may change upon cycling by cyclic voltammetry. Besides, the current density shows non-linear behavior with the square root of the scan rate, implying that the reaction is not totally controlled by diffusion. EIS analysis using the EQUIVCRT software revealed that one out of twenty tested equivalent circuits fitted the data well at potentials of -0.05 V,- 0.15 V and -0.25 V vs. Ag/AgCl, identifying resistors and a Warburg element in parallel with the double layer capacitance, the elements are possibly related to the presence of double layers associated with hydroxypyrovate and oxalate ions.The results are consistent with the low-frequency error fitting analysis (10-4), AC Simulink-Matlab fitting responds and the Kronig-Kramers transform test. The tested Zn-Au and Cu-Au electrodes show similar voltammetry behavior as the gold electrode, as witnessed by the results of cycle analysis and the scan rate analysis. The discharge chronoamperometry test further shows that the Zn-Au electrode and Cu-Au have higher current densities than the gold electrode at a potential of -0.25 V vs. Ag/AgCl (5 mA cm-2, 4.5 mA cm-2, and 3 mA cm-2 respectively).
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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A practical approach in glycerol oxidation for the development of a glycerol fuel cell = Enfoque práctico en oxidación de glicerol para el desarrollo de la celda de combustible de glicerol

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Imagen de apoyo de  A Proposed Model for the Analysis and Measurement of the Green House Gas Emissions from Recirculating Aquaculture Systems = Modelo Propuesto para el Analisis y Medición de las Emisiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero de Sistemas de Recirculacion Acuicola

A Proposed Model for the Analysis and Measurement of the Green House Gas Emissions from Recirculating Aquaculture Systems = Modelo Propuesto para el Analisis y Medición de las Emisiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero de Sistemas de Recirculacion Acuicola

Por: Mateo Espejo Valencia | Fecha: 01/01/2016

Aquaculture is one of the most rapidly growing agriculture industries in the world. However, its rapid development could result in significant environmental concerns such as antimicrobial resistance, eutrophication and climate change. To this date, very few studies have been conducted to investigate the Green House Gas (GHG) emissions produced by aquaculture systems and their negative effect on the environment. The aim of this study was to create and propose a novel model capable of measuring the amount of direct GHG emissions produced by a modified recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) using an adapted respiration chamber design. In order to achieve this aim, two types of laboratory-scale Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) aquaculture systems, soil-based and non-soil-based RAS, were used to identify and quantify the Methane (CH4) and Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The results of the water parameters analysis indicated that there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) in the water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH and Nitrite (NO2) levels between treatments. The results of the gas analysis indicated that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in CH4 and CO2 emissions between treatments. However, a significant effect (P< 0.001) of time on the emissions of CH4 during the gas analysis and measurement period was evidenced, suggesting an increased methanogenic activity in the anoxic areas of the sediment through time. The results of this study suggest that the proposed novel model is effectively capable of measuring CH4 and CO2 emissions produced in recirculating aquaculture systems and that its application and adaptation to larger aquaculture production systems should be evaluated.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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A Proposed Model for the Analysis and Measurement of the Green House Gas Emissions from Recirculating Aquaculture Systems = Modelo Propuesto para el Analisis y Medición de las Emisiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero de Sistemas de Recirculacion Acuicola

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Imagen de apoyo de  A relational poverty approach in Biomimicry production systems = Una aproximación desde la pobreza relacional a sistemas de producción basados en biomímiesis

A relational poverty approach in Biomimicry production systems = Una aproximación desde la pobreza relacional a sistemas de producción basados en biomímiesis

Por: Jorge Marcelo Aráus Patiño | Fecha: 01/01/2016

Current sustainability models rely on the triple line approach, in which economic growth, environmental sustainability and social are fundamental pivots. In recent years, the model of Biomimicry has emerged as a sustainable option of production, challenging the industrial revolution in which resource depletion and maximization of profits are key .At present , economic growth and environmental benefits has been well documented, however little is known about how social justice can be impacted by this biomimicry production systems. In the present study, a framework has been created with the purpose of assessing biomimicry production systems (BPS) in terms of social justice. In specific, an approach of poverty that has been gaining attention in the past decades and which represent poverty as a result of social relations has been used for its construction. The framework has then been done to understand the extent to which BPS can disrupt relational poverty (RP). As a study case, the polyculture quinoa production systems in the South America altiplano is presented. Evidence shows that these ancient farming systems have disruption effects on RP mechanisms with different intensities. This model of production rivals monocroping areas in areas like the Peruvian coast in terms of the avoidance relations that perpetrate poverty and of diversity, a fundamental aspect of Biomimicry. Other beneficial relations relate to moral economy were found as opportunities for these BPS’s. The framework generated here can be used to analyse other BPS in terms of social justice, it is robust and covers much of the aspects involved in power relations, agency and empowerment.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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A relational poverty approach in Biomimicry production systems = Una aproximación desde la pobreza relacional a sistemas de producción basados en biomímiesis

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Imagen de apoyo de  A Study of the Factors that Influence the Decision-Making Process to Allocate Resources on Legal Tech = Un Estudio de los Factores que Influencian el Proceso de Toma de Decisiones de Destinar Recursos en Legal Tech

A Study of the Factors that Influence the Decision-Making Process to Allocate Resources on Legal Tech = Un Estudio de los Factores que Influencian el Proceso de Toma de Decisiones de Destinar Recursos en Legal Tech

Por: Daniel Alberto Acosta Guevara | Fecha: 01/01/2019

The study set out to shed light on the key drivers and barriers that influence leaders deciding whether or not to invest in legal tech. Understanding these factors is a starting point to reduce the uncertainty that surrounds the future of the law industry. Accordingly, the fundamental question in the study asks what are the main drivers and barriers that influence the decision-making process to allocate resources on legal tech. The following sub-questions are discussed through the dissertation to find a reasonable answer: - What is legal tech, and why is it relevant? - How do the barriers/drivers found in the research influence the innovation-decision process? La tesis busca indagar acerca de las motivaciones y barreras clave que influencian a los altos gerentes de las firmas de abogados al momento de tomar la decisión de invertir en legal tech. Entender estos factores es un punto inicial para reducir la incertidumbre que rodea el futuro de la industria del derecho. De acuerdo con lo anterior, la pregunta central que hace el estudio es cuáles son las causas que influyen el proceso de toma de decisión para destinar recursos en legal tech. Adicionalmente y con el propósito de encontrar una respuesta a la inquietud planteada, la investigación aborda las siguientes sub-preguntas: - Qué es legal tech, y por qué es relevante? - Cómo influencian los motivos y las barreras encontrados en la investigación, el proceso de decisión de innovación.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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A Study of the Factors that Influence the Decision-Making Process to Allocate Resources on Legal Tech = Un Estudio de los Factores que Influencian el Proceso de Toma de Decisiones de Destinar Recursos en Legal Tech

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Imagen de apoyo de  A study of the real exchange rate misalignment in Colombia and the spillover from US monetary policy

A study of the real exchange rate misalignment in Colombia and the spillover from US monetary policy

Por: Andres Felipe Palacio Llinas | Fecha: 01/01/2015

Given the large drop in the US monetary policy interest rate during the past decade, a significative spillover effect was reflected over Colombia as it had to lower its own policy rate considerably to avoid a further currency appreciation. Its impact on the real exchange rate misalignment is assessed using a Vector Error Correction Model with fundamentals such as the real interest rates differential, net foreign assets, terms of trade, the Balassa Samuelson effect, which reflects the productivity growth differential and the government expenditure employing quarterly data.In order to contrast the importance of this effect two periods were analyzed, one from 1996q1 to 2005q4 and another from 2006q1 to 2014q4. Results show that although the impact of the real interest rate differential does not have a large contribution to the determination of the real exchange rate it has changed its effect sign and now seems to explain a larger proportion of the forecast error variance in longer horizons. Other fundamentals, such as the net foreign assets, the terms of trade and the Balassa Samuelson effect are found to be key determinants for the long run equilibrium.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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A study of the real exchange rate misalignment in Colombia and the spillover from US monetary policy

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Imagen de apoyo de  A systematic literature review on software testing techniques experiments: learning about the evolution in the XXI century

A systematic literature review on software testing techniques experiments: learning about the evolution in the XXI century

Por: Jorge Enrique González Ortiz | Fecha: 01/01/2013

The use of evidence based software engineering (EBSE) and the use of systematic literature reviews (SLRs) in software engineering has been growing in the last years. In 2004 Juristo et. al. analyzed the maturity level of the knowledge about testing techniques by examining the previous 25 years (1978-2004) of Testing Technique Experiments. We believe it is time to update the state of the art in testing technique experiments by using a SLR.Objective: To analyzed the maturity level of the knowledge about testing techniques by examining testing technique experiments between years 2000 and 2013. This work tries to complement the previous analysis of Juristo et. al. in 2004 where they analyzed the maturity level of the knowledge about testing techniques by examining the previous 25 years (1978-2004).Method: We undertook a systematic review of papers testing techniques experiments carried out between years 2000 and 2013. Studies were classified with respect to the testing technique family and grouped by their affinity as regards the techniques studied.Results: In the search and selection process we identified 22 relevant papers reporting 26 testing techniques published in Software Engineering conferences and journals between 2000 and mid-2013, after data extraction we reduce this to a list of 16 primary studies belong to four families. Based on this primary studies we extracted and analyzed the necessary information to compare them between each other’s in order to generate our appreciations.
Fuente: Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República Tipo de contenido: Tesis
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  • Ingeniería

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A systematic literature review on software testing techniques experiments: learning about the evolution in the XXI century

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