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Imagen de apoyo de  Relation between environmental factors and children’s development in one central american orphanage

Relation between environmental factors and children’s development in one central american orphanage

Por: Claudia Patricia Ovalle Ramírez

The present study reports results from the evaluation of the environmental conditions of an orphanage in Managua, Nicaragua and their associations with the children’s development while they were still in the orphanage. The observational measures were obtained by trained assessors (Caregiver Child Socioemotional Relationship Scale or CCSERS and the physical environment measures ITERS and ECERS ).The analysis was conducted at the unit level of the ward, an approached not taken in previous research. The results support the crucial role of the caregiving environment in the development of institutional children. The results of the present study show a positive and strong relationship between the caregiving environment (behavioral environment measured with CCSERRS) and the development of children (measured with BDI) in one Latino orphanage.The changes in the developmental outcomes of the institutionalized children at the post intervention period are not only a product of changes in the physical environment of the wards (e.g., the relationship between the Total ITERS - ECERS score and the total Battelle was positive but non-significant). These changes are more related to the improvement of the caregiver child interactions (the behavioral environment) in the wards.However, the environmental scales (ITERS-ECERS) and the CCERRSS have a positive but not strong association indicating that the physical aspects of environment are associated with the quality of caregiver-child interactions at the level of the wards. Thus both, physical and behavioral environment must be improved in orphanages, but socio-emotional aspects are more influential in the proper development of children. Previous studies had established the relationship between the environment and the development of children but the present study offers evidence at the ward versus the institutional level.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2011
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
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Relation between environmental factors and children’s development in one central american orphanage

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Imagen de apoyo de  Critically evaluate the extent to which the english courts may award damages for breach of a jurisdiction agreement

Critically evaluate the extent to which the english courts may award damages for breach of a jurisdiction agreement

Por: Natalia Moreno Prieto

Following Zoller, Akar and Donohue there has been much debate about the possibility of claiming damages for breach of a JA under the common law system. The debate has also been extended to the question of whether a claim on damages may be an alternative under the framework of Brussels Regulations I, particularly in the present context where the European Court of Justice has expressly precluded the use of traditional common law tools to enforce JAs.In this essay I intent to identify, from the existing common law cases, what conditions are required to ground a claim on damages for breach of a JA and if such claim would be compatible with the Brussels Regulation I. For this purpose I will also consider the work of different authors in the subject.However Briggs’ work will be central to my study as it is one of the most complete works on damages for breach of JAs. I will also briefly examine if the reforms introduced by the Re-Cast EC1215/2012 change the conclusion reached in respect of the current Brussels Regulation I.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2015
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros
    • Ciencias sociales

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Critically evaluate the extent to which the english courts may award damages for breach of a jurisdiction agreement

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Imagen de apoyo de  Redrawing the coast

Redrawing the coast

Por: Diego Guillermo; Huang Bermúdez Obregón

After many years of violence and economic isolation, Colombia’s image has shifted. Several international treaties have been signed and Colombia has been targeted by new travelers and powerful international investors. A forbidden destination less than a decade ago, Colombia welcomes now more than 2 million visitors per year. This rapid economic and touristic boom provides good opportunities for growth but is having dramatic consequences for urban communities and its surrounding ecosystems.The Caribbean region of Colombia is one of the most visited regions in the country. Unfortunately, cities in the region don’t have the tools or the criteria to expand in a sustainable way in terms of competitiveness, social inclusion and urban quality. The perception of the Caribbean coast in Colombia is the one of a line. Development has occurred ignoring the immediate context, trying to imitate the image of the internationally sold Caribbean paradise, disregarding and threatening a unique environment. Along this coast, there are five natural parks. It is one of the most biodiverse spots in the globe. Half of the tourists coming to the country will visit one or two of these natural parks. Nonetheless, tourism, urban expansion and uncontrolled growth are jeopardizing the uniqueness of this region, ruining its diverse natural assets.The Caribbean coast is one of the fastest growing regions in Colombia, with an overall growth rate that will double the population by 2050. Recent growth trends suggest that new development has been rapidly taking over the coast with gated apartment towers, hotels and exclusive resorts up on the coast interrupting public access to the beach. Meanwhile, informality sprawls in the back drop, creeping up the hills, into the marshes, dangerously close to protected areas. A linear wall-city parallel to the coast is being created by these trends for short-term profits, undermining environments, increasing flood risk, promoting social instability and finally.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2015
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros
    • Arte

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Redrawing the coast

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Imagen de apoyo de  UNFRAMED: a system of connections between artists and people through mural arts in a Colombian city

UNFRAMED: a system of connections between artists and people through mural arts in a Colombian city

Por: Sarah Thénot Tejada

The current global context is characterized by a growing importance on relations and the creation of links between different actors. Contemporary artists have to deal with different connection’s skills to succeed in their carriers and to make their work visible to a wider audience and potential collectors. However these opportunities are not constant because the system is very competitive. There is high offer and low demand, which is also affected by the economical crisis. Additionally, art continues to be considered a luxury item for few ones. In developing countries, low demand is not only due to crisis, but also to the fact that art is a secondary issue for common people. Moreover the culture of appreciating and acquiring art is under development.From this scenario, the thesis aims to answer the following question; how to make visual arts more accessible to common people and at the same time to bring to the artist new markets and visibility for his work? A product-service system is proposed to give answer to the main question. “Unframed” provides an innovative space to show murals, where artists become the protagonists and art becomes accessible to everyone in different ways. The service is based in an online platform which is feed by artists’ portfolios and temporal murals made in the city. It is also complemented by limited series of mural reproduction; touch points in common places and a closer relation artist-user. The system uses different strategies to make it valuable for the artist, the user, the city and stakeholders. Reducing the gap between artists and the public, it establishes lasting relationships and encourages fresh market scenarios.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2010
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
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UNFRAMED: a system of connections between artists and people through mural arts in a Colombian city

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Imagen de apoyo de  Adaptable Morphodynamics

Adaptable Morphodynamics

Por: María Fernanda; Daurelio Chaparro

Adaptable Morphodynamics addresses the development of complex high density urban systems over space and time. Building morphologies can be conceived as living organisms that change in form, shape and structure through the interaction of physical, informational and geometrical processes. This research focuses on density, environmental quality and spatial identity. These studies are extended to present-day Hong Kong and addresses a design system that aims to reinterpret spatial logics, connected with local socio-cultural attributes, into a set of rules and code for an “intelligent densification”.From the data gathered, two strategies are developed in parallel and as they become more defined, they begin to inform one another until a holistic urban approach is developed. Urban porosity and Urban growth at different scales (neighbourhood, plot and building) become the key design tools to achieve environmental performance, in terms of urban ventilation, housing public programmes, and maximizing pedestrian and bicycle accessibility for all people through a fluid mobility network at ground and multiple layers of connectivity.Existing building morphologies are transformed computationally into porous organisms and are used to construct accurate models of growth for regaining the lost demographic pressure. Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms are employed to generate a complex urban design model. This is characterized by the emergence of public green areas, integration of socio-cultural amenities within the existing building morphologies and by generation of a comfortable outdoor microclimate, at different operational scales.The improvement of the well-being of the urban population could be achieved through a spatial approach based on principles of social inclusion, especially in the most deprived areas of the patch, characterized by illegal and informal settlements, known as “rooftop villages or sky-slums”. The main target, in the long term, will be to develop an “urban intelligence” that takes into account the mutual relation between demographic demand, site constraints and the potentialities and limitations of the architectural targets.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2014
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
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Adaptable Morphodynamics

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Imagen de apoyo de  Justice and peace? A just post bellum ethical critical analysis to 2005 colombian peace process

Justice and peace? A just post bellum ethical critical analysis to 2005 colombian peace process

Por: María Emilia Lleras Ronderos

Colombia internal conflict between paramilitary armies and the central government is a topic that has been studied widely from different perspectives, including, but not limited to, studies on forced disappearance, internal displacement, the war on drugs, and the incidence of United States in Colombian internal warfare (Richani, 2013; Acemoglu et al., 2013; Aviléz, 2006; Dube & Naidu, 2015). By contrast, 2005 peace process between Colombian government and illegal paramilitary armies grouped under the umbrella organization named United Self-defense Forces of Colombia (AUC), has not been addressed with the same dedication. The objective of the present research is to analyze the 2005 Colombian peace-settlement through the scope of jus post bellum theory, aiming to see the possible deviations of the peace process from a just war theory moral perspective. According to jus post bellum theorist, a just peace-settlement can help to avoid repetition, while an unjust one can derive into new confrontation (Bell, 2013; Turner Johnson, 2012; Philpott, 2010). By achieving this goal this project intends to provide an ethical reflection on the course of action followed in Colombia to finish war with the self-defense armies, and to enrich Colombian debate about peace policy making in a time when the government is now negotiating a new peace settlement with FARC guerrilla.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Tesis
  • Año de Publicación 2015
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros
    • Ciencia política

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Imagen de apoyo de  The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube

The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube

Por: Alejandro; Rubega Rico Guevara

Hummingbird tongues pick up a liquid, calorie-dense food that can- not be grasped, a physical challenge that has long inspired the study of nectar-transport mechanics. Existing biophysical models predict optimal hummingbird foraging on the basis of equations that assume that fluid rises through the tongue in the same way as through capillary tubes. We demonstrate that the hum- mingbird tongue does not function like a pair of tiny, static tubes drawing up floral nectar via capillary action.Instead, we show that the tongue tip is a dynamic liquid-trapping device that changes configuration and shape dramatically as it moves in and out of fluids. We also show that the tongue–fluid interactions are identi- cal in both living and dead birds, demonstrating that this mechan- ism is a function of the tongue structure itself, and therefore highly efficient because no energy expenditure by the bird is required to drive the opening and closing of the trap.Our results rule out previous conclusions from capillarity-based models of nectar feeding and highlight the necessity of developing a new biophy- sical model for nectar intake in hummingbirds. Our findings have ramifications for the study of feeding mechanics in other nectari- vorous birds, and for the understanding of the evolution of nectar- ivory in general. We propose a conceptual mechanical explanation for this unique fluid-trapping capacity, with far-reaching practical applications (e.g., biomimetics).
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Artículos
  • Publicador Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - PNAS; Vol. 108, No. 23
  • Año de Publicación 2014
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
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    • Otros

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The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube

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Imagen de apoyo de  Low scale inflation and the curvaton mechanism = Inflacion de baja energia y el mecanismo del curvaton

Low scale inflation and the curvaton mechanism = Inflacion de baja energia y el mecanismo del curvaton

Por: Yeinzon; Dimopoulos Rodríguez García

The primordial curvature perturbation may be due to a `curvaton' field, which dominates (or almost dominates) the energy density before it decays. In the simplest version of the curvaton model the scale of inflation has to be quite high corresponding to a Hubble parameter H>10^7 GeV. We here explore two modifications of the curvaton model which can instead allow inflation at a low scale. (i) The curvaton is a Pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Boson (PNGB), with a symmetry-breaking phase transition during inflation. (ii) The curvaton mass increases suddenly at some moment after the end of inflation but before the onset of the curvaton oscillations.Both proposals can work but not in a completely natural way. Also, the lower bound on the scale of inflation depends somewhat on the details of the framework used. Nevertheless, we show that inflation with H as low as 1 TeV or lower is possible to be attained.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Artículos
  • Publicador Journal of High Energy Physics; Vol. 2, No. 55
  • Año de Publicación 2005
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
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    • Otros

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Low scale inflation and the curvaton mechanism = Inflacion de baja energia y el mecanismo del curvaton

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Imagen de apoyo de  Bogotá, my digital city

Bogotá, my digital city

Por: Juana Marcela Leal Simbaqueba

According to the last census on 2005, Bogotá has a population of 7.363.782 inhabitants which makes it the sixth biggest city in Latin America and produces the 26% of the Colombian GDP, ranking on the tenth place, over cities as Caracas, Lima and Medellin. In 2010 occupied the 8th position on the ranking of the best cities for doing bussines in Latin America. In the last two decades Bogota has suffered several urban transformations, which largely have been influenced by the change of perspective with the arrival of visionary mayors as Enrique Peñalosa2 and Antanas Mockus. This drastic renovation on the city, had severe repercution even in the international context, with awards as the “Leone d’oro” as the best city in the Biennale di Venezia 2006, the Stockholm Challenge 2000 for the “car free day” and “Latin American Digital cities award” in 2004. However the positivism that at some point invaded Bogota citizens now its been seriously affected by the lack of continuity and evolution on the city programs, just 32% of the population considers that things on the city are on a good track3, furthermore the city has been hit by a public administration crisis by corruption cases. The role of digitalization in cities, for the flexibility of its tools and applications could determine a deffinitive step forward in developed countries, according to Paolo Fusero; “In the future while differences between rich and poor territories will become less significant, a new distinction will emerge between intelligent territories and those which do not have such aptitudes. An intelligent territory can apply adequate comunication techonologies within its perimeter in order to maximise efficiency.” (Fustero, 2008) Therefore the objective of this paper is to identify the strategy that the City of Bogota has adopted in order to implement its digitalization, but giving special importance on the iniciatives designed in order to extend its benefits to the most disadvantaged.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Artículos
  • Año de Publicación 2012
  • Idioma Inglés
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
  • Temas
    • Otros

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Bogotá, my digital city

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Imagen de apoyo de  O cuidado na perspectiva da convivência, respeito e tolerância: percepções de pós-graduandas em enfermagem

O cuidado na perspectiva da convivência, respeito e tolerância: percepções de pós-graduandas em enfermagem

Por: María Angélica; Stein Backes Arzuaga Salazar

O presente estudo é de caráter qualitativo-exploratório e desenvolvido no contexto de uma disciplina, num encontro com um grupo de doze alunas de pós-graduação em Enfermagem de uma Universidade Federal, com o objetivo de realizar reflexão pessoal e identificar as percepções de alunas pós-graduandas em enfermagem sobre a relação entre o cuidado e as virtudes convivência, respeito e tolerância.A coleta de dados ocorreu durante o encontro, por meio de instrumento individual e de dinâmicas de grupo, de observação e gravação das falas. A análise se constituiu na descrição dos dados agrupados por semelhança. As categorias identificadas foram Virtudes identificadas nas cuidadoras e Percepções sobre o cuidado e sua relação com as virtudes convivência, respeito e tolerância.As virtudes convivência, respeito e tolerância estão inter-relacionadas e fazem parte do cuidado. A convivência oportuniza pensar, refletir e aceitar nossas imperfeições, sendo solidários aprendendo a cuidar de si, dos outros e do cosmos.Concluímos que a atividade que realizamos serve de exemplo para os profissionais enfermeiros, no sentido de viabilizarem reflexões com os alunos e profissionais que integram a equipe de enfermagem/saúde, a fim de fortalecer o cuidado na prática e compreender melhor o sentido de cuidar.
  • Tipo de contenido Acceso digital Artículos
  • Publicador Ciência, Cuidado e Saúde; Vol. 10, No. 1
  • Año de Publicación 2011
  • Idioma Portugués
  • Fuente Biblioteca Virtual Banco de la República
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    • Otros

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O cuidado na perspectiva da convivência, respeito e tolerância: percepções de pós-graduandas em enfermagem

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